Product Information

Isononanoic Acid

Isononanoic Acid (CAS: 26896-18-4) Supplier in Europe

Isononanoic acid, a monofunctional carboxylic acid with the chemical formula C9H18O2, is an important intermediate in industrial chemistry. Found both as a synthetic and natural product, it exhibits a clear, oily liquid form at room temperature and carries distinctive characteristics that make it valuable in various applications.

The acid serves as a critical component in the synthesis of alkyd resins, which are extensively utilized in the formulation of coatings for stoving enamels and two-component paints that require enhanced yellowing resistance.

In the realm of organic chemistry, isononanoic acid is known for its consistent high purity, which is essential for the production of specialized synthetic lubricants. These lubricants are pivotal in sectors demanding high performance and precision, such as refrigeration and aviation. Moreover, due to its branched-chain structure, this medium-chain fatty acid finds relevance in improving the properties of end products, positively impacting their stability and effectiveness.

As isononanoic acid continues to be studied and applied, its presence in naturally occurring species like Solanum pennellii underscores the versatility and ubiquity of this carboxylic acid in both natural and industrial domains. Its role in advancing material science and industrial processes exemplifies the synergy between nature-derived compounds and their engineered counterparts.

Chemical Properties

The chemical properties of Isononanoic Acid, a branched-chain saturated fatty acid, are characterized by its distinct molecular structure, physical state, solubility, alongside precise boiling and melting points.

Molecular Structure

Isononanoic Acid has a molecular formula of C9H18O2. Its structure includes a branched-chain, resulting from a 7-methyl group present in the compound, which distinguishes it from straight-chain fatty acids.

Physical State

At room temperature, Isononanoic Acid is typically found in liquid form. It displays clear to slightly yellowish appearance owing to its molecular composition.


Isononanoic Acid is known for its moderate solubility in water, which varies depending on the temperature and pH. It is, however, readily soluble in organic solvents like ethanol, methanol, and ethers indicating its versatile nature.

Boiling and Melting Points

The boiling point of Isononanoic Acid is recorded at approximately 255°C (491°F), while its melting point is generally observed just below room temperature, around -54°C (-65.2°F), signifying a low freezing point relative to many other fatty acids.

Synthesis and Production

The production of isononanoic acid involves specialized chemical processes that convert specific starting materials into the desired acid through a series of reactions.

Industrial Preparation

In industry, isononanoic acid is mainly produced from 2-ethylhexanol. The process begins with the dehydration of 2-ethylhexanol to create octenes. These octenes undergo hydroformylation to form isononanal, which is then oxidized to yield isononanoic acid.

  • Dehydration: 2-ethylhexanol → Octenes
  • Hydroformylation: Octenes → Isononanal
  • Oxidation: Isononanal → Isononanoic Acid

This method is scalable and cost-effective, making it suitable for commercial production. Companies like BASF have expanded production capacity for higher carboxylic acids, including isononanoic acid, ensuring a reliable supply for various industrial applications.

Laboratory Methods

In the laboratory, isononanoic acid can be synthesized through alternative methods that are suitable for smaller-scale production. While detailed lab-scale synthesis procedures can vary, they generally mirror the industrial approach but with more control over reaction conditions and purification steps.

  • Controlled Reactions: Reduced scale allows for precise manipulation of temperature, pressure, and catalysts.
  • Purification: Enhanced techniques ensure high purity of the final product.

These methods are essential for research and development where isononanoic acid of particularly high purity may be required.


Isononanoic acid is a versatile carboxylic acid, prominently used in the production of various industrial and consumer products due to its effective properties.


In plasticizer manufacturing, isononanoic acid functions as a precursor in the synthesis of esters. These esters improve the flexibility and durability of plastics, making them essential components in the creation of soft PVC and other pliable plastic materials.

Synthetic Esters

Synthetic lubricants often contain esters derived from isononanoic acid. These esters are particularly important in the formulation of polyol esters for use in demanding environments, such as refrigeration systems and aviation applications, where they contribute to the thermal stability and lubricity of the lubricants.

Cosmetics and Personal Care

In the field of cosmetics and personal care, isononanoic acid finds its application as an ingredient in the production of metal salts used in paint dryers. Moreover, it contributes fragrance and flavoring qualities to various beauty products, enhancing their sensory attributes.

Health and Safety

The health and safety profile of Isononanoic acid is characterized by its toxicological effects, regulatory status, and specific handling and storage guidelines to ensure safety.


Isononanoic acid has been assessed for its potential health hazards. Toxicologically, it is known to pose certain risks if ingested, with an acute oral toxicity falling under Category 4, H302. Skin contact can provoke irritation, classified under Category 2, H315. Most notably, the substance carries a serious risk of causing eye damage, which is classified as Category 1, H318.

Regulatory Status

Regulatory bodies have categorized Isononanoic acid per directive 1272/2008/EC, also known as the CLP Regulation, which governs the classification, labelling, and packaging of substances and mixtures in the EU. It requires that the hazards associated with chemicals are clearly communicated through standardized statements and pictograms.

Handling and Storage

Safe handling of Isononanoic acid involves:

  • Using personal protective equipment (PPE): Ensuring that skin and eye protection is worn to prevent irritation or damage.
  • Avoiding ingestion: Due to its toxicity upon oral intake.

When storing Isononanoic acid, it is crucial to:

  • Keep it in a well-ventilated area away from incompatible materials.
  • Store at controlled room temperature to maintain its stability and integrity.

Compliance with safety data sheet (SDS) recommendations ensures that risks are minimized during interaction with the substance.

Environmental Impact

The environmental impact of isononanoic acid, a synthetic fatty acid used in various industrial applications, is primarily evaluated through its biodegradability and ecotoxicity.


Isononanoic acid generally exhibits moderate biodegradability. This substance can be broken down by microbial action, which mitigates its impact on the environment over time. When released into the environment, isononanoic acid undergoes gradual decomposition, lessening potential long-term adverse effects.


In terms of ecotoxicity, isononanoic acid poses low acute toxicity to aquatic life. This is indicated by:

  • LC50 (Lethal Concentration for 50% of the test organisms): Value ranges for fish indicate low toxicity.
  • EC50 (Effective Concentration for 50% of the population): Value ranges for algae and invertebrates also demonstrate low toxicity levels.

It is important to note that despite the low acute toxic effects, the potential for long-term effects on organisms has not been fully characterized. Hence, continuous monitoring and proper waste management practices are advisable to prevent environmental accumulation.

Analytical Methods

Analytical methods for isononanoic acid involve both qualitative and quantitative approaches. These methods are utilized to ensure the purity and concentration of isononanoic acid in various applications.

Qualitative Analysis

Qualitative analysis of isononanoic acid primarily uses spectroscopic techniques to identify the compound and assess its purity. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy are two commonly used methods. NMR provides detailed information on the molecular structure, while IR spectroscopy is particularly useful for identifying functional groups, such as the carboxyl group in isononanoic acid.

Quantitative Analysis

For quantitative analysis, techniques such as Mass Spectrometry (MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) are employed. These methods determine the concentration of isononanoic acid in a sample:

  • Mass Spectrometry: It measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions to quantify isononanoic acid with high sensitivity and specificity.
  • High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: HPLC separates components in a mixture allowing for precise quantification of isononanoic acid against known standards.

Frequently Asked Questions

This section addresses some of the most common inquiries regarding Isononanoic acid, providing concise answers that emphasize its applications, market considerations, safety protocols, molecular structure, and production methods.

What are the common applications of Isononanoic acid in industry?

Isononanoic acid serves as a key monomer in synthesizing alkyd resins, which are used in various coatings such as stoving enamels and two-component paints. Its use contributes to the improved yellowing resistance in paint compared to traditional fatty acids and is involved in the manufacturing of paint driers as metal salts.

How is the market price of Isononanoic acid determined?

The market price of Isononanoic acid is influenced by factors such as raw material costs, supply and demand dynamics, production efficiencies, and logistical expenses. Prices can fluctuate based on market conditions and availability of the acid or its precursors.

What safety measures should be taken when handling Isononanoic acid due to its toxicity?

Proper safety equipment, such as gloves, goggles, and protective clothing, should be worn when handling Isononanoic acid. Facilities should ensure proper ventilation and have procedures in place for managing spills, including neutralization and containment in accordance with material safety data sheet (MSDS) recommendations.

Can you describe the molecular structure of Isononanoic acid?

The molecular structure of Isononanoic acid consists of a nine-carbon chain with a carboxylic acid functional group at one end. It is often represented by the molecular formula C9H18O2 and features branched-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons.

How is the molecular weight of Isononanoic acid calculated?

The molecular weight of Isononanoic acid is calculated by summing the atomic weights of each constituent atom in its chemical formula, C9H18O2. This gives it a molecular weight of approximately 158.24 grams per mole.

What are the methods involved in the production of Isononanoic acid?

Isononanoic acid is typically produced through the oxidation of hydrocarbons in a process that involves catalytic systems under controlled conditions.

The specifics of the production process can vary depending on the desired purity and yield of the final product.